Editing Standards and Guidelines

A compendium of editing standards and style guides

Culturally safe editing: a chart to navigate stormy cultural waters

This list of resources is about understanding the importance of cultural safety to writing and editing. I first presented the list at the Institute of Professional Editors Conference 2021 – Editing on the Edges (note – more items coming!).


1. The University of Sydney Library. (2021). University of Sydney Library: Aboriginal and Torres Strait Islander Cultural Protocols. University of Sydney.

‘As a site of knowledge production and custodian of Aboriginal and Torres Strait Islander knowledges, and the knowledges of other First Nations peoples, we are mindful of Indigenous Cultural Intellectual Property (ICIP) and encourage ethical use of the First Nations cultural knowledge and culturally appropriate research practices. As part of this commitment, the University of Sydney Library Aboriginal and Torres Strait Islander Cultural Protocols aim to guide Library staff in promoting culturally safe practices across services, spaces and resources.’ (p. 5)

Principles of self-determination, responsibility, reciprocity, and truth telling. Protocols of:

  1. attribution (acknowledging cultural custodianship, promoting citation guides that cite First Nations knowledges);
  2. interpretation and representation (context, terminology, right of reply, exhibitions, collection development and publishing – balancing perspectives);
  3. access (balancing access and ethical reuse – the CARE and FAIR Principles, collection survey, identifying potentially sensitive First Nations cultural material, access to material, restricted access, takedown requests, conscious collecting and disposal and preservation, classification and description, copyright works, handling materials containing sensitive information, and care and sensitivity notices-systems);
  4. engagement (inviting First Nations voices, contradictory advice, staffing, spaces, promoting ethical research, staff engagement and cultural competence training, and acknowledgement of Country);
  5. benefit sharing (Respecting and valuing First Nations input – financial compensation and terms, and increasing Aboriginal and Torres Strait Islander staff); and
  6. reference group (convene a reference group).

2. Australia Council for the Arts. (2019). Protocols for Using First Nations Cultural and Intellectual Property in the Arts. Australia Council.

‘This edition consolidates the five protocol guides into one guide in recognition of, and to keep abreast with, the constantly evolving nature of the Australian creative landscape.’ (p. i)

‘This protocol guide spells out clearly the legal as well as the ethical and moral considerations for the use of Indigenous cultural material in arts and cultural projects. It can help people do the right thing.’ (p. 1)

3. Macquarie University. (2017). Macquarie University Aboriginal Cultural Protocols. The Walanga Muru Office of Indigenous Strategy & Macquarie University.

4. City of Wagga Wagga. (2017). Aboriginal and Torres Strait Islander Cultural Protocols: A Guide for Councillors and Council Staff. City of Wagga Wagga.

5. Riphagen, M., & Stolte, G. M. (2016). The Functioning of Indigenous Cultural Protocols in Australia’s Contemporary Art World. International Journal of Cultural Property, 23(3), 295-320.

6. ACT Council of Social Services Inc, (2016). Gulanga Good Practice Guide: Preferences in terminology when referring to Aboriginal and/or Torres Strait Islander peoples. ACTCOSS.

7. Oxfam Australia. (2015). Aboriginal and Torres Strait Islander Cultural Protocols. Oxfam Australia.

8. Bankstown Area Multicultural Network. (2015). Indigenous Community Protocols for BAMN Management Committee. Practical protocols for working with the Indigenous Community of South West Sydney. T. M. Network.

9. The Royal Australian College of General Practitioners. (2012). An introduction to Aboriginal and Torres Strait Islander cultural protocols and perspectives. RACGP.

10. Secretariat National Aboriginal and Islander Child Care. (2010). Working and Walking Together – Supporting Family Relationship Services to work with Aboriginal and Torres Strait Islander Families and Organisations. SNAICC.

11. Hurley, A. (2003). Respect, acknowledge, listen: practical protocols for working with the Indigenous community of Western Sydney. City of Bankstown.

12. The Australian and New Zealand School of Government, (no date). Respect for Indigenous peoples and cultures ANZSOG Learning and Action Protocol. Available at:, accessed 5th May 20210

13. Acknowledgement on websites, e.g., Common Ground:, access 5th May 2021.


Otmar, R. (2020). Editing for Sensitivity, Diversity and Inclusion: A Guide for Professional Editors. Renée Otmar Consultancy

Canadian Association of University Teachers, Guide to Acknowledging First Peoples & Traditional Territory

Cultural Capability Enablers’ Network, (2016). Aboriginal and Torres Strait Islander Cultural Capability: Respectful Language Guide. Available at, accessed 5th May 2021.

Shelley, C. (2021). Conscious Language Toolkit for Editors. Rabbit with a Red Pen Editorial Services.


1. Restoring her name: The witness of Mahrahkah and the survival of a nation, by Felicity McCallum (Awabakal); shows the colonial practice of naming First Nation’s Peoples as ‘misnomer imposed by the colonial officials onto an identity-robbed Awabakal person. (e.g. Molly Morgan, Dismal, Frying Pan, Little Noboby)

4. Martire, J. L. (2021). Amplifying Silenced Voices Through Micro- and Small-Press Publishing. Publishing Research Quarterly, 37(2), 213-226.

7. Australia Council for the Arts. (2007). Protocols for Producing Indigenous Australian Writing. Australia Council.

11. Martin, R. J. (2013). The Politics of the Voice: Ethnographic fetishism and Australian literary studies. Journal of the Association for the Study of Australian Literature, 13(2).

2. Australian Government, (2021). Style Manual – Aboriginal and Torres Strait Islander peoples. Available at, accessed 5th May 2021.

5. Korff, J.,  (2021). Stereotypes and prejudice of ‘Aboriginal Australia’. Available at, accessed 5th May 2021.

8. Van Toorn, P., & Van Toorn, P. (2006). Writing Never Arrives Naked. Early Aboriginal Cultures of Writing in Australia. Aboriginal Studies Press.

12. Woolyungah Indigenous Centre. (2019). You can’t say that! Hints and Tips. The University of Wollongong.

3. Janke, T., Valenti, A., & Cutirs, L., (2021). More Than Words: Writing, Aboriginal and Torres Strait Islander Culture and Copyright in Australia.

6. Lucashenko, M. (2018). Writing as a Sovereign ActMeanjin77(4), 25.

9. NSW Health. (2004/2019). Communicating positively. A guide to appropriate Aboriginal terminology. NSW Government.

10. Janke, T. (2002). Writing Cultures: Protocols for Producing Indigenous Australian Writing. Aboriginal and Torres Strait Islander Arts Board of the Australia Council.

Strengths-based writing

1. Fogarty, W., Lovell, M., Langenberg, J., & Heron, M.-J. (2018). Deficit Discourse and Strengths-based Approaches: Changing the narrative of Aboriginal and Torres Strait Islander health and wellbeing. The Lowitja Institute & National Centre for Indigenous Studies.

2. Fforde, C., Bamblett, L., Lovett, R., Gorringe, S., & Fogarty, B. (2013, Nov 2013). Discourse, deficit and identity: Aboriginality, the race paradigm and the language of representation in contemporary Australia. Media International Australia, Incorporating Culture & Policy, 149(Nov 2013), 162-173.

Passing the Message Stick Organisation (2021). Message Stick: A Guide for Changing the Story on Self-determination and Justice.


1. Carl Feilberg’s The Way We Civilise; shows how Feilberg was ‘colonial Queensland’s most outstanding advocate for indigenous Australians when most of his peers were indifferent or hostile’

4. Thomas, A., Jakubowicz, A., & Norman, H., (2019). Does the Media Fail Aboriginal Political Aspirations? Aboriginal Studies Press: NSW Government. Available at, accessed 5th May 2021.

‘A more thoughtful approach would have developed a shared understanding and allowed society to appreciate our vision for the future. Journalists and editors have a critical role to provide the public with truthful, unbiased information, creating awareness and shaping opinion.’ (p. 6)

2. Australian Broadcasting Corporation, (2015). ABC Indigenous Content. Available at:, accessed 5th May 2021.

5. NITV, (2018). Why do media organisations like News Corp, Reuters and The New York Times still use words like ‘Aborigines’? Available at, accessed 5th May 2021

7. SBS Voices First Nations Takeover

3. Screen Australia, (2009). Pathways & Protocols: A filmmaker’s guide to working with Indigenous people, culture and concepts. Available at, accessed 5th May 2021

6. ABC Message Stick, (no date). Cultural Protocols for Indigenous Reporting in the Media. Available at, accessed 5th May 2021

‘Another important method of ensuring authenticity and integrity is to provide copies of interviews and proposed articles for editing by Indigenous people who have contributed or been the subject of a work.’ (p. 16)


1. Bennett, B. (2020, 06/01/). What to bring when you are told not to bring a thing: The need for protocols in acknowledging indigenous knowledges and participants in Australian research. Journal of Sociology, 56(2), 167-183.

‘This research found a need for the development of specific journal editorial policies and guidelines for authors who wish to publish content pertaining to Indigenous peoples that adequately reflects their contribution while protecting and acknowledging Indigenous knowledge, ideas and ownership of information.’ (p. 167)

2. Rogers, A., Bower, M., Malla, C., Manhire, S., & Rhodes, D. (2017, 2017/06/01). Developing a Cultural Protocol for Evaluation. Evaluation Journal of Australasia, 17(2), 11-19.

4. Jones, A. & Barnett, B., (2006). Guidelines for ethical and effective communication for researchers working in Torres Strait. Report to CRC Torres Strait. Townsville, Australia. Available at, accessed 5th May 2021

3. Aboriginal Studies Press. (2015). Guidelines for the ethical publishing of Aboriginal and Torres Strait Islander authors and research from those communities. Australian Institute of Aboriginal and Torres Strait Islander Studies.

Workbooks & checklists

1. Origin Communication Group. (2016). Aboriginal Cultural Competency Standards. A Self-Assessment Process for Community Housing Providers. NSW Department of Family and Community Services, NSW Federation of Housing Associations.

4. North Coast Area Health Service. (2009). Cultural Respect and Communication Guide. A resource to assist sexual health service delivery to Aboriginal communities. NSW Health.

7. Encompass Family and Community 2014 Youth alcohol and drug practice guide 4: Learning from each other: Working with Aboriginal and Torres Strait Islander Young People. Brisbane. Dovetail. Available at, accessed 5th May 2021.

2. Community Legal Centres NSW. (2016). Aboriginal Cultural Safety Workbook for Community Legal Centres. Community Legal Centres NSW.

5. Posenelli, S., Clarke, A., Ewen, S., & Waddell, N. (2009). Ngarngadji! Listen/ understand! Improving Care for Aboriginal and Torres Strait Islander Patients (ICAP) Resource Kit. Victorian Government Department of Health.

3. Carers NSW. (2010). Koori Carer Yarning Resource Manual. Carers NSW.

6. Mental Health First Aid Australia, & beyondblue. (2008). Cultural Considerations & Communication Techniques: Guidelines for Providing Mental Health First Aid to an Aboriginal or Torres Strait Islander Person. t. n. d. i. Mental Health First Australia and beyondblue.

Cultural Safety Journal Articles – First Nations Australian

My aim is to collect all Australian journal articles that are explicitly about cultural safety and First Nations Australians.

January 2021

1. J. Bullen and L. D. Roberts, (2021 – 2/01/2021). Transformative learning within Australian Indigenous studies: a scoping review of non-Indigenous student experiences in tertiary Indigenous studies education. High Educ Res Dev.  40, 162-177. #lockedupknowledge for USD$45.00 at

“Some studies spoke of the value and necessity of facilitating emotional and cultural safety for students to voice their opinions and/or share their perspectives”

4. *F. Golding, A. Lewis, S. McKemmish, G. Rolan and K. Thorpe, (2021 – 8/01/2021). Rights in records: A Charter of Lifelong Rights in Childhood Recordkeeping in Out-of-Home Care for Australian and Indigenous Australian children and care leavers. The International Journal of Human Rights. #lockedupknowledge for USD$45.00 at

“There is real potential for rights-based recordkeeping systems to impact the cultural safety of Indigenous Australian people. Rather than recordkeeping systems creating trauma triggers, they can serve as tools to support healing, recovery, and wellbeing; rebuilding and connecting families and communities; and providing evidence for land claims and redress.”

7. Ahuriri-Driscoll, V. Lee and H. Came, (2021 – 11/01/2021). Amplifying Indigenous voice and curriculum within the public health academy – the emergence of Indigenous sovereign leadership in public health education. High Educ Res Dev.  40, 146-161. #lockedupknowledge for USD$45.00 at

“Approaches to decolonisation have only continued to evolve within these papers, supported by the momentum of cultural safety, cultural competence and anti-racist theorising and pedagogical developments.”

10. *K. Thorpe, (2021 – 20/01/2021). The dangers of libraries and archives for Indigenous Australian workers: Investigating the question of Indigenous cultural safety. International Federation of Library Associations (IFLA) Journal. #lockedupknowledge for £29.00 at

“A key area of concern in the research relates to the ways in which colonial legacies continue to be embedded within the structures of libraries and archives, and how these legacies impact the cultural safety of Indigenous Australian peoples.”

13. Cochrane, F., Siyambalapitiya, S., & Cornwell, P. (2021 – 25/01/2021). Clinical profile of Aboriginal and Torres Strait Islander adults with stroke and traumatic brain injury at a regional Australian hospital: a retrospective chart audit. Brain Impairment, 1-13. #lockedupknowledge for USD$35.00 at

“Language diversity was not recorded which does not align with responsive and culturally safe healthcare practices.”

16. *A. Munns, (2021 – 28/01/2021). Community midwifery: a primary health care approach to care during pregnancy for Aboriginal and Torres Strait Islander women. Australian Journal of Primary Health.  27, 57-61. #lockedupknowledge for AUD$35.00 at

“From health providers’ perspectives, key findings from this study demonstrate benefits for Aboriginal women and their families in this remote community, with CMs [community midwives] delivering culturally safe antenatal care in collaboration with partner agencies, with midwifery primary health care competencies viewed as a strong enabling factor.”

19. Nash, S., & Arora, A. (2021 – 30/01/2021). Interventions to improve health literacy among Aboriginal and Torres Strait Islander Peoples: a systematic review. BMC Public Health, 21(1), 248. #openaccess at

“This tool [Health Literacy in Dentistry] was specifically developed in collaboration with the population of interest for this study to ensure cultural safety and sensitivity”

2. R. Macniven, J. Coombes, R. Wilson, A. Simon, T. Mackean, K. Hunter, T. Ma, J. Gwynn, C. Sherrington, A. Tiedemann, A.-M. Hill, K. Delbaere, C. Lewis, K. Bennett-Brook, A. Howie, G. Stewart, M. Shakespeare, K. Rogers, R. Q. Ivers and K. Clapham, (2021 – 5/01/2021). Understanding implementation factors and participant experiences of a cluster randomised controlled trial to prevent falls among older Aboriginal people: a process evaluation protocol. Injury Prevention. DOI: 10.1136/injuryprev-2020-043980, injuryprev-2020-043980. #lockedupknowledge for £30.00 at

“Inequitable health and socioeconomic health status experienced by Aboriginal people requires healthcare systems to be culturally safe and meet the specific needs of Aboriginal people in Australia.”

5. Kate, G. Alana, B. Tamara, A. Brian, H. Kirsten, C. Alan and G. Gail, (2021 – 10/01/2021). Using Web Conferencing to Engage Aboriginal and Torres Strait Islander Young People in Research: A Feasibility Study. BMC medical research methodology. #openaccess at

“The study facilitators yarned with peer participants as part of decolonising research practice and to ensure cultural safety and comfort in the research setting.”

8. M. Bovill, Y. Bar-Zeev, B. Bonevski, J. Reath, C. Oldmeadow, A. Hall, I. C. A. N. Q. U. I. T. in Pregnancy Pilot Group and G. S. Gould, (2021 – 13/01/2021). Ngaa-bi-nya-nhumi-nya (to Test First): Piloting the Feasibility of Using the Growth and Empowerment Measure with Aboriginal Pregnant Women Who Smoke. Journal of Smoking Cessation.  #openaccess at

“This study was also overseen by an Aboriginal Advisory Group made up of staff from each partnering Aboriginal Community Controlled Health Service to ensure that the research design and implementation was culturally safe and appropriate for their community.”

11. J. Mamtora, C. Ovaska and B. Mathiesen, (2021 – 21/01/2021). Reconciliation in Australia: The academic library empowering the Indigenous community. IFLA Journal. #lockedupknowledge for £29.00 at

“Indigenous recruitment and culturally aware staff are key elements for providing culturally safe academic libraries.”

14. *T. Flemington, M. Lock, J. Shipp, D. Hartz, B. Lonne and J. A. Fraser, (2021 – 26/01/2021). Cultural Safety and Child Protection Responses in Hospitals: A Scoping Review. International Journal on Child Maltreatment: Research, Policy and Practice. DOI: 10.1007/s42448-020-00065-3. #openaccess at

“The stimulus for this review was to address a policy to practice gap in cultural safety in Australian hospitals for Aboriginal families with children involved, or at risk of becoming involved, in child protection services.”

17. T. Power, D. Wilson, L. East, B. Cashman, J. Wannell and D. Jackson, (2021 – 28/01/2021). Indigenous women’s experiences of diabetes in pregnancy: A thematic synthesis. Collegian. DOI: $USD35.95 #lockedupknowledge

“Collectively, through our organisations, nursing needs to agitate and advocate for the enactment of policy and legislation that will ensure the delivery of culturally safe health care and the decolonisation of health services.”

20. *R. D. Thackrah, J. Wood and S. C. Thompson, (2021 – 31/01/2021). Longitudinal Follow Up of Early Career Midwives: Insights Related to Racism Show the Need for Increased Commitment to Cultural Safety in Aboriginal Maternity Care. International journal of environmental research and public health.  #openaccess at

“Socio-economic disadvantage, risky health behaviours and slow progress in the provision of culturally safe maternity services, especially to rural and remote women, are all implicated in poorer health outcomes and have their roots in Australia’s colonial history.”

3. E. Dale, K. M. Conigrave, P. J. Kelly, R. Ivers, K. Clapham and K. S. K. Lee, (2021 – 6/01/2021). A Delphi yarn: applying Indigenous knowledges to enhance the cultural utility of SMART Recovery Australia. Addiction Science & Clinical Practice, 16:2. #openaccess at

“Yarning was used instead of traditional interviews to avoid a question–answer dialogue and to ensure participants’ cultural safety.”

6. K. J. Fildes, E. Beck, T. Bur, P. Burns, L. A. Chisholm, C. T. Dillon, T. A. Kuit, A. T. McMahon, E. P. Neale, C. Paton-Walsh, S. Powell, D. Skropeta, A. Stefoska-Needham, A. Tomlin, T. M. Treweek, K. Walton and J. Kennedy, (2021 – 11/01/2021). The first steps on the journey towards curriculum reconciliation in science, medicine and health education. High Educ Res Dev.  40, 194-206. #lockedupknowledge for USD$45.00 at

“‘Cultural security’, ‘cultural responsiveness’, and ‘cultural respect’ are approaches that have been developed subsequent to cultural safety and which similarly target both systemic and individual change”

9. *Day, S. Casey, M. Baird, L. Geia and R. Wanganeen, (2021 – 18/01/2021). Evaluation of the Aboriginal and Torres Strait Islander Mental Health First Aid Program. Australian and New Zealand Journal of Public Health. #openaccess at

“To assess both the perceived quality of AMHFA [Australian Mental Health First Aid] and the extent to which it is regarded as culturally safe, it is also important that participants are afforded the opportunity to rate their experience of the training and to comment on its cultural appropriateness.”

12. F. Charlson, B. Gynther, K. Obrecht, E. Heffernan, M. David, J. T. Young and E. Hunter, (2021 – 21/01/2021). Incarceration among adults living with psychosis in Indigenous populations in Cape York and the Torres Strait. Australian & New Zealand Journal of Psychiatry. #lockedupknowledge for £32.00 at                                       

“It is crucial that Indigenous Australians with psychotic disorder access culturally safe and culturally informed mental health responses.”

15. *M. West, S. Sadler, F. Hawke, S. E. Munteanu and V. Chuter, (2021 – 26/01/2021). Effect of a culturally safe student placement on students’ understanding of, and confidence with, providing culturally safe podiatry care. Journal of foot and ankle research.  #openaccess at

“This study demonstrated that an immersive student placement at a culturally safe podiatry clinic significantly improved students’ understanding of, and confidence with, providing culturally appropriate care to Aboriginal and Torres Strait Islander Peoples.”

18. Manton, D., & Williams, M. (2021 – 28/01/2021). Strengthening Indigenous Australian Perspectives in Allied Health Education: A Critical Reflection. International Journal of Indigenous Health, 16(1). #openaccess at

Cultural safety: Development of an environment that is spiritually, socially, emotionally, and physically supportive and safe for Indigenous people, and that respects their cultures and identities.”

Download this review

February 2021

1. Orr, F., Kelly, M., Virdun, C., Power, T., Phillips, A., & Gray, J. (2021 – 1/02/2021). The development and evaluation of an integrated virtual patient case study and related online resources for person-centred nursing practice. Nurse Educ Pract, 51, 102981. #lockedupknowledge for USD$35.95 at

“The reduction of health disparities in Aboriginal Peoples is dependent on culturally safe health care that supports empowerment, focuses on the person’s experiences of the care, and is person-centred (Nguyen, 2008).”

4. Bovill, M., Chamberlain, C., Bennett, J., Longbottom, H., Bacon, S., Field, B., Hussein, P., Berwick, R., Gould, G., & O’Mara, P. (2021 – 2/02/2021). Building an Indigenous-Led Evidence Base for Smoking Cessation Care among Aboriginal and Torres Strait Islander Women during Pregnancy and Beyond: Research Protocol for the Which Way? Project. Int J Environ Res Public Health, 18(3). #openaccess at

“At the closing of the yarning circles, a lunch will be offered to the women. This process acts as an acknowledgement of women giving up their time to participate in the research as well as providing a culturally safe space for women and researchers to be able to reflect on the yarning circle conversations.”

8. Cullen, P., Mackean, T., Walker, N., Coombes, J., Bennett-Brook, K., Clapham, K., Ivers, R., Hackett, M., Worner, F., & Longbottom, M. (2021 – 12/02/2021). Integrating Trauma and Violence Informed Care in Primary Health Care Settings for First Nations Women Experiencing Violence: A Systematic Review. Trauma, Violence, & Abuse. #lockedupknowledge for £29.00 at  

“The intention of culturally safe care is to create an environment where experiences of past and present trauma are acknowledged, there are no structural power differentials, and there is an emphasis on creating a sense of safety (Browne et al., 2016).”

12. Bentley, S. A., Anstice, N. S., Armitage, J. A., Booth, J., Dakin, S. C., Fitzpatrick, G., Herse, P., Keay, L., & McKendrick, A. M. (2021 – 22/02/2021). Strengthening Indigenous eye care in Australia and New Zealand through a Leaders in Indigenous Optometry Education Network. Aust N Z J Public Health. #openaccess at

“The understanding is that the inclusion of quality cultural safety training in curricula will not only produce better practitioners but will also influence other important changes, such as increased recruitment and graduation rates for Indigenous students (as the program itself will be culturally safe), and increased representation of Indigenous staff within the higher education sector.”

15. Bradley, P., Lowell, A., Daiyi, C., Macklin, K., Nagel, T., & Dunn, S. (2021 – 25/02/2021). It’s a little bit like prison, but not that much: Aboriginal women’s experiences of an acute mental health inpatient unit. Int J Ment Health Nurs, n/a(n/a). #lockedupknowledge (free to read) for USD$49.00 at

“Ramsden (2002) noted that while ‘human samenesses and human differences’ are highlighted by investigation into matters of cultural safety, individual needs and experiences are mediated by cultural, gender and social factors.”

17. McCullough, K., Bayes, S., Whitehead, L., Williams, A., & Cope, V. (2021 – 27/02/2021). We say we are doing primary health care but we’re not: Remote area nurses’ perspectives on the challenges of providing primary health care services. Collegian. #lockedupknowledge for USD$35.95 at  

“Remote area nurses are primary health care nurses with a particular focus on providing culturally safe care to Aboriginal and Torres Strait Islander communities.”

2. Barnabe, C. (2021 – 5/02/2021). Towards attainment of Indigenous health through empowerment: resetting health systems, services and provider approaches. BMJ Glob Health, 6(2). #openaccess at

Cultural safety has been achieved through Indigenous leadership, with access to activities that promote wellness and community building, inclusivity and harm reduction in a non- judgmental space with respect for dignity, autonomy and kinship.”

5. Blunden, S., Fatima, Y., & Yiallourou, S. (2021 – 4/02/2021). Sleep health in Indigenous Australian children: a systematic review. Sleep Med, 80, 305-314. #lockedupknowledge for USD$35.95 at

“Further, there is a necessity to embed at a systems level the provision of culturally safe and responsive sleep health support to Indigenous infants, children and families and communities.”

6. Orr, N., Gwynne, K., Sohn, W., & Skinner, J. (2021 – 5/02/2021). Inequalities in the utilisation of the Child Dental Benefits Schedule between Aboriginal and non-Aboriginal children. Australian Health Review. #openaccess at

“Compounding this is limited access to toothbrushes and toothpaste, high out-of-pocket costs for dental care and access barriers related to cultural safety and social disadvantage.”

9. Socha, A. (2020 – 12/02/2021). Addressing Institutional Racism Against Aboriginal and Torres Strait Islanders of Australia in Mainstream Health Services: Insights From Aboriginal Community Controlled Health Services. International Journal of Indigenous Health, 16(1). #openaccess at

Cultural safety in a health care setting involves understanding the history of colonial violence and oppression that produces health inequities, and suspending ethnocentric views in favour of respecting alternative worldviews and cultural practices (Australian Human Rights Commission, 2018).”

13. Walker, R., Usher, K., Jackson, D., Reid, C., Hopkins, K., Shepherd, C., Smallwood, R., & Marriott, R. (2021 – 22/02/2021). Connection to… Addressing Digital Inequities in Supporting the Well-Being of Young Indigenous Australians in the Wake of COVID-19. Int J Environ Res Public Health, 18(4). #openaccess at

“The taskforce has advised on primary care-targeted actions, workforce needs, cultural safety, testing, evacuation and biosecurity measures, and community information provision.”

16. Coombes, J., Fraser, S., Hunter, K., Ivers, R., Holland, A., Grant, J., & Mackean, T. (2021 – 26/02/2021). “They Are Worth Their Weight in Gold”: Families and Clinicians’ Perspectives on the Role of First Nations Health Workers in Paediatric Burn Care in Australia. Int J Environ Res Public Health, 18(5). #openaccess at

“Care that is regardful of differences, improves dialogue and reduces power imbalances will lead to an experience of improved culturally safe care [19].”

18. Byrne, A.-L., McLellan, S., Willis, E., Curnow, V., Harvey, C., Brown, J., & Hegney, D. (2021 – 28/02/2021). Yarning as an Interview Method for Non-Indigenous Clinicians and Health Researchers. Qualitative Health Research. #lockedupknowledge for £32.00 at

“Making people feel culturally safe, and therefore prepared to “talk,” requires sustaining the relationship through time.”

3. Steele, M. L., Meurk, C., Schess, J., Yap, L., Jones, J., Harden, S., Davison, S., Butler, T., & Heffernan, E. (2021 – 2/02/2021). Substance use and help-seeking among justice-involved young people in Queensland and Western Australia: A cross-sectional survey of 14–17-year-olds. Drug Alcohol Rev. #lockedupknowledge for AUD$49.00 at

“Our findings illustrate the ongoing importance of delivering tailored, comprehensive and coordinated trauma-informed and culturally safe AOD services to justice-involved young people, both in detention and in the community.”

7. Satour, J., & Goldingay, S. (2021 – 10/02/2021). Experiencing Aboriginal Perspectives Through the Embodied Concept of the Tree of Life: Implications for Developing a Teaching Resource. Australian Social Work, 74(2), 198-209. #lockedupknowledge for USD45.00 at

“This creates a space for students to question and voice uncertainties, discomforts, and anxieties in a culturally safe space without being fearful, silent or having a saviour complex in having to rescue Aboriginal people from themselves.”

10. Marnie, C., & Peters, M. D. J. (2021- 18/02/2021). Relaunched, the Australian Journal of Advanced Nursing in the year of the Nurse and Midwife. Australian Journal of Advanced Nursing, 38(1). #open access at

“We argue that health practitioners have a responsibility to employ critical consciousness to developing strategic frameworks that promote and make space for a culturally safe working environment, and safe healing environment for Aboriginal and Torres Strait Islander people.”

11. Windle, A., Javanparast, S., Freeman, T., & Baum, F. (2021 – 18/02/2021). Assessing organisational capacity for evidence-informed health policy and planning: an adaptation of the ORACLE tool for Australian primary health care organizations. Health Research Policy and Systems, 19(1), 25. #openaccess at

“A hypothetical example might be where a strategy to enhance the cultural safety of services for Aboriginal and Torres Strait Islander people has been favourably evaluated in X region—can it then be confidently assumed that the same strategy would be culturally safe in Y region (acknowledging the distinct cultural beliefs and practices of different Aboriginal communities across Australia)?”

14. Arruzza, E., & Chau, M. (2021 – 24/02/2021). The effectiveness of cultural competence education in enhancing knowledge acquisition, performance, attitudes, and student satisfaction among undergraduate health science students: a scoping review. J Educ Eval Health Prof, 18, 3. #openaccess at

“However, Kurtz et al. [29] highlighted that without a system-wide approach, culturally safe practice will continue to be viewed as anecdotal, an individual experience and not evidence-based.”

’nuff said


March 2021

1. Ferdinand, A., Massey, L., Cullen, J., Temple, J., Meiselbach, K., Paradies, Y., Baynam, G., Savarirayan, R., & Kelaher, M. (2021, 2021/03/01). Culturally competent communication in Indigenous disability assessment: a qualitative study. International Journal for Equity in Health, 20(1), 68.

‘Cultural competence, also referred to as cultural safety, has been defined as ‘a set of congruent behaviours, attitudes and policies that come together in a system, agency or among professionals; enabling that system, agency or those professionals to work effectively in cross-cultural situations [22].’

4. Benn, E., Wirth, H., Short, T., Howarth, T., & Heraganahally, S. S. (2021). The Top End Sleepiness Scale (TESS): A New Tool to Assess Subjective Daytime Sleepiness Among Indigenous Australian Adults. Nat Sci Sleep, 13, 315-328.

‘To illustrate the utility of a newly developed culturally safe and clinically relevant subjective daytime sleepiness assessment tool “Top End Sleepiness Scale” (TESS) for use among Indigenous Australians.’

7. Byrne, A.-L., McLellan, S., Willis, E., Curnow, V., Harvey, C., Brown, J., & Hegney, D. (2021). Yarning as an Interview Method for Non-Indigenous Clinicians and Health Researchers. Qualitative Health Research. #lockedupknowledge at

‘Making people feel culturally safe, and therefore prepared to “talk,” requires sustaining the relationship through time.’

10. Haynes, E., Walker, R., Mitchell, A. G., Katzenellenbogen, J., D’Antoine, H., & Bessarab, D. (2021, 2021/03/09/). Decolonizing Indigenous health: generating a productive dialogue to eliminate rheumatic heart disease in Australia. Social Science & Medicine, 113829. #openaccess at

‘Recommendations to address health system failures in the RHD [rhematic heart disease] policy space include actions to support Aboriginal self-determination in the Endgame Strategy (Wyber et al., 2020) (see also, specifically: funding communities to develop Indigenous-led culturally responsive programs, increased and sustained resourcing of an Aboriginal-led strategy implementation unit, Aboriginal health services and peer support programs, and ensuring culturally safe health provision (Wyber et al., 2020).’

14. Westerman, T. (2021). Culture-bound syndromes in Aboriginal Australian populations. Clinical Psychologist, 1-17. #lockedupknowledge, USD$45.0.

17. *Venugopal, J., Ninomiya, M., Green, N., Peach, L., Linklater, R., George, P., & Wells, S. (2021, 2021/03//). A scoping review of evaluated Indigenous community-based mental wellness initiatives. Rural and Remote Health, 21(1), 6203. #openaccess.

‘Experts have argued that Indigenous leadership, knowledge systems, beliefs, and practices are essential for the development and implementation of culturally safe and successful initiatives to improve Indigenous peoples’ health’

20. Reyna, J. (2021). Incorporating Indigenous Voices in Learning Design: A Framework for Medical and Health Sciences Education. Society for Information Technology & Teacher Education International Conference, Online-United States. #openaccess.

‘Engage in culturally safe and sensitive communication that facilitates trust and a respectful relationship with patients, carers, and other health professionals.’

21. *Guenther, J., Dwyer, A., Wooltorton, S., & Wilks, J. (2021). Aboriginal student engagement and success in Kimberley tertiary education. The Australian Journal of Indigenous Education, 1-9. #lockedupknowledge US$25.00.

‘The role of culturally safe spaces and processes within universities was raised several times by our respondents. Our respondents discussed the need for separate Aboriginal spaces where they feel comfortable, and where they feel as though they belong.’

24. *Elek, C., Gibberd, A., Gubhaju, L., Lennox, J., Highfold, R., Goldfeld, S., & Eades, S. (2021, 2021/03/31). An Opportunity for Our Little Ones: Findings from an Evaluation of an Aboriginal Early Childhood Learning Centre in Central Australia. Early Childhood Education Journal. #lockedupknowledge, €34,95.

Cultural safety was thus defined as one in which children (and Aboriginal staff) feel valued and are comfortable with being themselves and expressing their Aboriginal identity and culture.’

2. Stuart, L., Kimmel, L., & Jolly, A. (2021). Incidence of lower limb amputation in Central Australia. Australian Health Review.

‘Central Australia appears to have the highest incidence rate of LLA [lower limb amputation] for any region in Australia, with Aboriginal Australians, particularly females and those undergoing renal dialysis, being disproportionately represented. Further studies should aim to determine targeted, culturally safe and successful methods of diabetic foot ulcer prevention, early detection and management with a view to reducing the high amputation rates for these cohorts.’

5. Whop, L. J., Smith, M. A., Butler, T. L., Adcock, A., Bartholomew, K., Goodman, M. T., Winer, R. L., Milosevic, E., & Lawton, B. (2021, Mar). Achieving cervical cancer elimination among Indigenous women. Prev Med, 144, 106314.

‘Trust, credibility, and accountability are key, therefore health providers involved in cervical screening services and interventions with Indigenous women need to provide culturally safe care.’

8. *Mills, K., Creedy, D. K., Sunderland, N., & Allen, J. (2021, 2021/05/01/). Examining the transformative potential of emotion in education: A new measure of nursing and midwifery students’ emotional learning in first peoples’ cultural safety. Nurse Education Today, 100, 104854. #lockedupknowledge, US$35.95

‘A measure of emotional learning by non-Indigenous health student experiences when undertaking education on First Peoples cultural safety may provide a platform for the development of innovative pedagogy in Australia.’

11. Hughes, J. T. (2021, 2021/03/08). Kidney health equity for Indigenous Australians: an achievable goal. Nature Reviews Nephrology. (content embargoed for 364 days)

12. Stockton, D. A., Fowler, C., Debono, D., & Travaglia, J. (2021, 2021/06/01). World Health Organization building blocks in rural community health services: An integrative review. Health Science Reports, 4(2), e254. #openaccess.

‘Community-based participatory action research provides an opportunity to learn from one another, build capacity, optimize service model suitability, and promotes cultural safety by demonstrating respect and inclusivity in decision making.’

15. *Deroy, S., & Schütze, H. (2021, 2021/03/18). Factors supporting retention of health and wellbeing staff in Aboriginal health services: a strength-based case study. Human Resources for Health, 19(1), 35. #openaccess.

‘We add to the literature by identifying the importance of bi-directional communication, as well as demonstrating that social accountability, teamwork and collaboration, cultural safety, supervision, professional

18. Chando, S., Tong, A., Howell, M., Dickson, M., Craig, J. C., DeLacy, J., Eades, S. J., & Howard, K. (2021, Mar 17). Stakeholder perspectives on the implementation and impact of Indigenous health interventions: A systematic review of qualitative studies. Health Expect. #openaccess.

‘Participants explained that cultural safety was about being comfortable to feel vulnerable— ‘you don’t have to explain yourself – don’t have to feel defensive,’ (Australian Aboriginal participant of a midwifery service).’

22. Keelan, K., Pitama, S., Wilkinson, T., & Lacey, C. (2021). Indigenous peoples’ experiences and preferences in aged residential care: a systematic review. AlterNative: An International Journal of Indigenous Peoples, 11771801211004773. #lockedupknowledge, £29.00.

‘Our study exemplified that ARC [Aged Residential Care] services with health care staff that are more likely to be aware and familiar with Indigenous concepts and customs and promote the use of the culturally safe models of health care are more likely to be associated with positive Indigenous health engagement and experiences.

25. Benton, M., Hearn, S., & Marmolejo-Ramos, F. (2021). Indigenous students’ experience and engagement with support at university: a mixed-method study. The Australian Journal of Indigenous Education, 1-9. #lockedupknowledge, US$25.00.

‘Improvements of facilities was identified by students and related to students’ wanting more culturally safe study spaces on the university campus and secure study areas where belongings can be left’

3. Pammer, K., Freire, M., Gauld, C., & Towney, N. (2021, Mar 2). Keeping Safe on Australian Roads: Overview of Key Determinants of Risky Driving, Passenger Injury, and Fatalities for Indigenous Populations. Int J Environ Res Public Health, 18(5).

‘The value of this [virtual reality driver training] for passenger safety is twofold: an immersive, culturally safe learning environment allows novice drivers to more effectively learn the necessary rules and legislation around keeping their passengers safe.’

6. Lavrencic, L. M., Donovan, T., Moffatt, L., Keiller, T., Allan, W., Delbaere, K., & Radford, K. (2021, 2021/08/01/). Ngarraanga Giinganay (‘thinking peacefully’): Co-design and pilot study of a culturally-grounded mindfulness-based stress reduction program with older First Nations Australians. Eval Program Plann, 87, 101929.

‘Through partnering and consultation with Aboriginal communities and organisations, and guidance from the Aboriginal and Torres Strait Islander Reference Group (ATSIRG; including First Nations clinicians, academics and/or advocates), a need was identified to translate KGOWS findings into “culturally-safe neuroplasticity” or “brain training”, to reduce the rates of cognitive decline.’

9. Saunders, P., & Doyle, K. (2021, 2021/03/10). Gambling Interventions in Indigenous Communities, from Theory to Practice: A Rapid Qualitative Review of the Literature. Journal of Gambling Studies. #lockedupknowledge, €34,95.

‘Developing culturally safe green spaces, for instance, may encourage physical activity, as well as family and community engagement, contributing to many cultural obligations inherent in engaging with community members such as opportunities for cultural education and knowledge exchange.’

13. *Harding, J., MacKinnon, K., Sangster-Gormley, E., & Gordon, C. (2021). Indigenous peoples’ positive experiences with culturally safe health care: a qualitative systematic review protocol. JBI Evidence Synthesis, Online First. #openaccess.

‘For this review, cultural safety is defined as positive, safe, and affirming interactions with health care providers in any health care setting as experienced by the recipient(s) of care, their family, or community. ‘

16. Kildea, S., Gao, Y., Hickey, S., Nelson, C., Kruske, S., Carson, A., Currie, J., Reynolds, M., Wilson, K., Watego, K., Costello, J., & Roe, Y. (2021, 17/03/2021). Effect of a Birthing on Country service redesign on maternal and neonatal health outcomes for First Nations Australians: a prospective, non-randomised, interventional trial. The Lancet Global Health, 9(5), e651-e659. #openaccess.

Culturally safe maternity care encompasses the entirety of a woman’s needs (physical, psychosocial, spiritual, emotional, and cultural), with culturally safe practitioners treating women with respect and dignity.’

19. *Cairns, A., Geia, L., Kris, S., Armstrong, E., O’Hara, A., Rodda, D., McDermott, R., & Barker, R. (2021). Developing a community rehabilitation and lifestyle service for a remote indigenous community. Disability and Rehabilitation, 1-9. #lockedupknowledge for US$57.00 at

Cultural safety shines the spotlight on non-Indigenous practitioners to reflect on the self, the rights of others (Indigenous people), the legitimacy of difference, and its application to all relationships and structures in developing a culturally safe workforce and safe service delivery’

23. Thorpe, K., Burgess, C., & Egan, S. (2021). Aboriginal Community-led Preservice Teacher Education: Learning from Country in the City. Australian Journal of Teacher Education, 46(1). #openaccess.

‘To prepare preservice teachers, address oft expressed fears of not wanting to offend Aboriginal people and consider the cultural safety of all involved, we discuss culturally appropriate, ethical and local protocols to build awareness and confidence early in these courses.’

26. Nolan-Isles, D., Macniven, R., Hunter, K., Gwynn, J., Lincoln, M., Moir, R., Dimitropoulos, Y., Taylor, D., Agius, T., Finlayson, H., Martin, R., Ward, K., Tobin, S., & Gwynne, K. (2021 – 15/03/2021). Enablers and Barriers to Accessing Healthcare Services for Aboriginal People in New South Wales, Australia. Int J Environ Res Public Health, 18(6). #openaccess at

“Enabling factors were coordination of healthcare services within jurisdictions, effective communication between healthcare services, trust in health services and positive experiences of cultural safety, prioritization of access for Aboriginal people, resourcing for healthcare services and addressing distance and transport barriers.”

Summary: For March 2021, I found 26 academic journal articles explicitly focussed on First Nations Australians and cultural safety.

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April 2021

*1. Withall, L., Ryder, C., Mackean, T., Edmondson, W., Sjoberg, D., McDermott, D., & Wilson, A. (2021, 1/04/2021). Assessing cultural safety in Aboriginal and Torres Strait Islander Health. Aust J Rural Health. #lockedupknowledge for AU$42.00 at

‘Specifically, time restraints within the workplace meant that many of the participants had limited time to incorporate cultural safety principles into their practice with patients. Half of the participants suggested that this aspect of care was viewed by management as a lower priority to the clinical duties that made up a bulk of their workload.’

4. St John, N., & Edwards-Vandenhoek, S. (2021 – 13/04/2021). Learning together on Country: reimagining design education in Australia. Diaspora, Indigenous, and Minority Education, 1-19. #lockedupknowledge for USD$45.00 at

‘The importance of this on-Country research for educators lies in its creation of a culturally safe space to have more meaningful dialogue around the inclusion and prioritization of Indigenous perspectives in education and to challenge how visual communication design continues to be taught and practiced within mainstream Euro-Western learning environments in urban, regional, and remote contexts.’

7. Hamilton, S. L., Maslen, S., Farrant, B., Ilich, N., & Michie, C. (2021 – 15/04/2021). We don’t want you to come in and make a decision for us”: Traversing cultural authority and responsive regulation in Australian child protection systems. Australian Journal of Social Issues. #lockedupknowledge for $42.00 at

‘We explore these principles and practice recommendations for child protection governance in Western Australia] and highlight the need for culturally safe community consultation and governance with a focus on repairing damage incurred by the Aboriginal and Torres Strait Islander community from past child protection policies’

10. *Lock, M. J., Walker, T., & Browne, J. (2021 – 26/04/2021). Promoting cultural rigour through critical appraisal tools in First Nations peoples’ research. Australian and New Zealand Journal of Public Health. #openaccess at

‘That is, the CATs [critical appraisal tools] reflected a colonial ethic whereby non-First Nations peoples’ conceptions of ‘quality’ and ‘rigour’ were ‘best practice’ in the production of knowledge underpinning health policy solutions for First Nations peoples. This disempowering ethic diminishes, demeans and devalues First Nations peoples’ cultural knowledge, which goes against shifting power imbalances to promote cultural safety.’

2. Bennett, R., Uink, B., & Van den Berg, C. (2021 – 3/04/2021). Educating Rita at the cultural interface: exploring intersections between race and gender in the experiences of Australian Aboriginal women at university. Diaspora, Indigenous, and Minority Education, 15(2), 84-98. #lockedupknowledge for USD$45.00 at

‘Thus, it important that universities provide culturally safe spaces on campus, which understand and offer flexible study options to support Aboriginal women and their specific caring and cultural responsibilities.’

5. Sooful, P., Hogan, A., Williams, J., & Moore, R. (2021 – 15/04/2021). Escape into Culturally Safe Patient Centered Care. Noble International Journal of Social Sciences Research(62), 18-23. #openaccess at

Cultural safety only mentioned in the title!

8. Santos, A. D., Balabanski, A. H., Katzenellenbogen, J. M., Thrift, A. G., Burchill, L., & Parsons, M. W. (2021 –  23/04/2021). A narrative review of stroke incidence, risk factors and treatment in Indigenous Peoples of the world. Vessel Plus. #openaccess at

‘The future of stroke and its effect on Indigenous Peoples has shifted from documenting the relative disadvantage of individuals and their communities to finding solutions that can be targeted for improved Indigenous stroke outcomes. This can only be achieved once Indigenous Peoples write the narrative, for example, inclusion in the design and delivery of culturally safe health care that understands their lived experience and meets their needs as Indigenous People.’

11. Mitchell, O., Bourke, L., & Shaburdin, Z. M. (2021 – 26/4/2021). A qualitative evaluation of the implementation of a cultural competence project in rural Victoria. Australian and New Zealand Journal of Public Health, 45(3), 227-234. #openaccess at

‘Interestingly, within these same discussions, only four of the twenty Phase 1 interviewees questioned the assumption that indicators of Aboriginal population size within their area were accurate or that Aboriginal people were perhaps not identifying within their service because they did not feel culturally safe to do so.’

3. *Milligan, E., West, R., Saunders, V., Bialocerkowski, A., Creedy, D., Rowe Minniss, F., Hall, K., & Vervoort, S. (2021 – 13/04/2021). Achieving cultural safety for Australia’s First Peoples: a review of the Australian Health Practitioner Regulation Agency-registered health practitioners’ Codes of Conduct and Codes of Ethics. Australian Health Review. #lockedupknowledge for AUD$35.00 at

6. *Dalach, P., Savarirayan, R., Baynam, G., McGaughran, J., Kowal, E., Massey, L., Jenkins, M., Paradies, Y., & Kelaher, M. (2021 – 17/4/2021). “This is my boy’s health! Talk straight to me!” perspectives on accessible and culturally safe care among Aboriginal and Torres Strait Islander patients of clinical genetics services. Int J Equity Health, 20(1), 103-103. #openaccess at

‘There is significant scope for improving the care provided to Aboriginal and Torres Strait Islander people at clinical genetics services. Immediate attention to minimising logistical barriers, developing relationships with Aboriginal Community Controlled Health Services and providing practical and specific cultural safety training for practitioners is required at the service-level.’

9. McKivett, A., Glover, K., Clark, Y., Coffin, J., Paul, D., Hudson, J. N., & O’Mara, P. (2021 – 23/04/2021). The role of governance in Indigenous medical education research. Rural Remote Health, 21(2), 6473-6473. ·  #openaccess at

‘Collaborative governance structures are fundamental as the inclusion and prioritisation of Indigenous worldviews and values is a key step in redressing Indigenous healthcare disparities and providing culturally safe healthcare institutions.’

12. Ritchie, T., Purcell, T., Westhead, S., Wenitong, M., Cadet-James, Y., Brown, A., Kirkham, R., Neville, J., Saleh, C., Brown, N., Kennedy, E. C., Hennegan, J., Pearson, O., & Azzopardi, P. S. (2021 ­– 29/04/2021). Enablers and barriers to primary healthcare for Aboriginal and Torres Strait Islander adolescents: study protocol for participatory mixed-methods research that builds on WHO global standards. BMJ Open, 11(4), e046459. #openaccess at

‘All eight WHO standards were considered as relevant to the provision of high quality and responsive care for Aboriginal and Torres Strait Islander adolescents in Cape York, with an additional standard (referred here as standard 9) around cultural safety also considered in developing the research tools.’

Summary: For April 2021, I found 12 academic journal articles explicitly focussed on First Nations Australians and cultural safety. There were 7 Open Access articles, and 5 #lockedupknowledge (behind a paywall).

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May 2021

1. Fisher, M., Mackean, T., George, E., Friel, S., & Baum, F. (2021, 2/05/2021). Stakeholder perceptions of policy implementation for Indigenous health and cultural safety: A study of Australia’s ‘Closing the Gap’ policies. Australian Journal of Public Administration. #lockedupknowledge for $42.00 at

‘Australian governments’ efforts to reduce health and social inequities between Indigenous and non-Indigenous Australians would have greater prospects for success if attention were given to reshaping political ideas and values, and implementation structures and processes, in line with principles of cultural safety.’

4. Bennett, B., Ross, D., & Gates, T. G. (2021). Creating spatial, relational and cultural safety in online social work education during COVID-19. Social Work Education, 1-9.

Culturally safe classrooms recognise the colonialist structures and work towards decolonising, emerging out of collaborative partnerships with Indigenous communities.’

7. *Brown, K. (2021 – May). Providing the right tools before the start of life. The Lancet Global Health, 9(5), e569-e570. #openaccess at

‘Hence, it is crucial that health services for Indigenous people are comprised of Indigenous leadership and workforce, and that they also encompass a culturally safe environment.’

10. Gates, T. G., Achia, T., & Petch, J. (2021 – 14/05/2021). Allyship, Social Justice Values, and Commitment at an Australian Social Service Organization. Journal of Social Service Research, 1-12. #lockedupknowledge for USD$45.00 at

‘Organizations with strong psychological and cultural safety are those where employees are not just guided by their social justice values or the organization’s stated commitment to social justice and equity, but also have the skill and confidence to speak up and provide feedback when workplace conduct or practices fall short (Newman et al., 2017).’

13. *Molloy, L., Guha, M. D., Scott, M. P., Beckett, P., Merrick, T. T., & Patton, D. (2021 – 19/05/2021). Mental health nursing practice and Aboriginal and Torres Strait Islander people: an integrative review. Contemp Nurse, 1-17. #lockedupknowledge for USD$45.00 at

‘Given the high incidence of social and emotional wellbeing problems and mental ill-health, and the elevated levels of need for public mental health services within Indigenous communities, this [partnering between mental health nurses and Aboriginal and Torres Strait Islander Peoples] should be done urgently to ensure mental health nursing care that is both clinically and culturally safe.’

16. *Vincze, L., Barnes, K., Somerville, M., Littlewood, R., Atkins, H., Rogany, A., & Williams, L. T. (2021 – 22/05/21). Cultural adaptation of health interventions including a nutrition component in Indigenous peoples: a systematic scoping review. International Journal for Equity in Health, 20(1), 125. #openaccess at

‘While this review comprehensively investigated cultural adaptation strategies used, it did not evaluate the cultural safety of these interventions. Future research should consider the cultural safety of health interventions.’

2. Brockie, T., Clark, T. C., Best, O., Power, T., Bourque Bearskin, L., Kurtz, D. L. M., Lowe, J., & Wilson, D. (2021, 4/05/2021). Indigenous social exclusion to inclusion: Case studies on Indigenous nursing leadership in four high income countries. J Clin Nurs. #openaccess at

‘Although the inclusion of cultural safety is mandated in New Zealand and Australian nursing degrees (Australian Nursing & Midwifery Accreditation Council, 2019; Nursing Council of New Zealand, 19962011) and code of conduct (Nursing Midwifery Board of Australia, 2018; Nursing Council of New Zealand, 19922011), there is little evidence that this has translated into practice.’

‘Wherever possible, we will be using Aboriginal interviewers to create culturally safe spaces for study participants to respond to questions.’

5. Ubrihien, A., Gwynne, K., & Lewis, D. A. (2021 – 13/05/2021). Enabling culturally safe sexual health services in western Sydney: a protocol to improve STI treatment outcomes for Aboriginal young people. Pilot Feasibility Stud, 7(1), 106. #openaccess at

‘Wherever possible, we will be using Aboriginal interviewers to create culturally safe spaces for study participants to respond to questions.’

8. Lethborg, C., Halatanu, F., Mason, T., Posenelli, S., Cleak, H., & Braddy, L. (2021 – 16/05/2021). Culturally Informed, Codesigned, Supportive Care for Aboriginal and Torres Strait Islander People With Cancer and Their Families. Australian Social Work, 1-15. #lockedupknowledge for USD$45.00 at

‘The notion of offering holistic, appropriate, and responsive care requires an understanding of historical trauma and the social and cultural determinants of health common to Aboriginal and Torres Strait Islander people, and genuine commitment to culturally safe practice.

11. Bullen, J., & Flavell, H. (2021 – 20/05/2021). Decolonising the Indigenised curricula: preparing Australian graduates for a workplace and world in flux. Higher Education Research and Development, 1-15. #lockedupknowledge for USD$45.00 at

‘Health and teacher education curricula, for example, is recognised as playing an important role in developing culturally safe graduates able to improve the social and emotional wellbeing of Aboriginal peoples.’

14. *Taylor, E. V., Lyford, M., Holloway, M., Parsons, L., Mason, T., Sabesan, S., & Thompson, S. C. (2021 – 24/5/2021). “The support has been brilliant”: experiences of Aboriginal and Torres Strait Islander patients attending two high performing cancer services. BMC Health Serv Res, 21(1), 493. #openaccess at

‘If we are to improve health outcomes for Indigenous people it is vital more cancer services and hospitals follow the lead of these two services and make a sustained and ongoing commitment to strengthening the cultural safety of their service.’

17. Gifford, W., Rowan, M., Dick, P., Modanloo, S., Benoit, M., Al Awar, Z., Wazni, L., Grandpierre, V., Thomas, R., Sikora, L., & Graham, I. D. (2021 – 24/05/2021). Interventions to improve cancer survivorship among Indigenous Peoples and communities: a systematic review with a narrative synthesis. Supportive Care in Cancer. #openaccess at

‘To improve the cancer survivorship journey for Indigenous people, we need research that is relevant to Indigenous communities, culturally safe and effective, and honoring the diverse conceptualizations of health and wellness among Indigenous Peoples’

3. *Carlisle, K., Matthews Quandamooka, V., Redman-MacLaren, M., Vine, K., Turner Anmatyerre/Jaru, N. N., Felton-Busch Yangkaal/Gangalidda, C., Taylor, J., Thompson, S., Whaleboat Meriam Le, D., Larkins, S., & With the, L. L. C. (2021 – 6/05/2021). A qualitative exploration of priorities for quality improvement amongst Aboriginal and Torres Strait Islander primary health care services. BMC Health Serv Res, 21(1), 431. #openaccess at

‘Critically, this study has shown that the involvement of PHC service staff and community members shifted thinking away from a deficit model to solutions focused on service and community strengths, for example strengthening cultural safety and links in community.’

6. *Gerrard, J. M., Godwin, S., Chuter, V., Munteanu, S. E., West, M., & Hawke, F. (2021 – 10/5/2021). Release of the National Scheme’s Aboriginal and Torres Strait Islander Health and Cultural Safety Strategy 2020-2025; the impacts for podiatry in Australia: a commentary. #openaccess at J Foot Ankle Res, 14(1), 38. Open Access.

‘To apply the principles of cultural safety to our podiatry practice in Australia [19] we need to instil Aboriginal and Torres Strait Islander presence, empowerment and expertise in initiatives and approaches to Aboriginal and Torres Strait Islander health issues [24]’

9. Trounson, J. S., Oppenheim, R. K., Shepherd, S., & Pfeifer, J. E. (2021 – 14/05/2021). Social and emotional wellbeing among Indigenous Australian correctional officers. Psychiatry, Psychology and Law, 1-18. #lockedupknowledge for USD$45.00 at

‘If correctional organisations want to support the SEWB [social and emotional wellbeing] of Indigenous officers it will be important to promote cultural safety across the organisation.’

12. Ryder, C., Mackean, T., Coombes, J., Hunter, K., Ullad, S., Rogers, K., Essue, B., Holland, A., & Ivers, R. (2021, 18/05/2021). Developing economic measures for Aboriginal and Torres Strait Islander families on out-of-pocket healthcare expenditure. Australian Health Review, 45(3), 265-273. #openaccess at

‘This pilot study has demonstrated pertinent points for future work in this area, such as the complexities in developing robust, culturally safe and specific surveys, which reach ideal psychometric levels of validity and reliability for Aboriginal and Torres Strait Islander communities.’

15. Delbridge, R., Garvey, L., Mackelprang, J. L., Cassar, N., Ward-Pahl, E., Egan, M., & Williams, A. (2021 – 21/05/2021). Working at a cultural interface: co-creating Aboriginal health curriculum for health professions. Higher Education Research & Development, 1-16. #lockedupknowledge for USD$45.00 at

‘We were guided by the Aboriginal and Torres Strait Islander Health Curriculum Framework (The Framework; Commonwealth of Australia, 2014), which urges higher education providers to implement Aboriginal health curricula across health disciplines. Five interconnecting cultural capabilities (i.e., respect, communication, safety and quality, reflection and advocacy, embedded in relationships and partnerships) aim to increase provision of culturally safe healthcare for Aboriginal peoples.’

18. Fraser, S., Grant, J., Mackean, T., Hunter, K., Keeler, N., Clapham, K., Edgar, D. W., Towers, K., Teague, W. J., & Ivers, R. (2021, 24/5/2021). Considering difference: clinician insights into providing equal and equitable burns care for Aboriginal and Torres Strait Islander children. Australian and New Zealand Journal of Public Health, 45(3), 220-226. #openaccess at

‘There are gaps concerning the quality and cultural safety of the models that currently inform burn care in Australia. These include only limited aspects of cultural safety being addressed in the models, limited or no cultural consultation in their development, and descriptions or application of quality measures being inconsistent and incomplete.’

Summary: For May 2021, I found 18 academic journal articles explicitly focussed on First Nations Australians and cultural safety. There were 10 Open Access articles, and 8 #lockedupknowledge (behind a paywall).

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June 2021

1. Moggridge, B. J., Thompson, R. M., & Radoll, P. (2021 – 3/06/2021). Indigenous Research Methodologies in Water Management: Learning f rom Australia and New Zealand for Application on Kamilaroi Country. Wetlands Ecology and Management. #openaccess at

‘Indigenous Research Methodologies can provide a basis for the exploration of this knowledge in a way that that is culturally appropriate, and which generates a culturally safe space for Indigenous researchers and communities.’

2. *Christie, V., Green, D., Amin, J., Pyke, C., Littlejohn, K., Skinner, J., McCowen, D., & Gwynne, K. (2021 – 4/06/2021). What is the Evidence Globally for Culturally Safe Therapies to Improving Breast Cancer Outcomes for Indigenous Women in High Income Countries? A Systematic Review. Preprints. #openaccess at

“From this review, it is clear that there needs to be more research about capacity building, culturally safe services and building health literacy. Based on this study we can infer that the impact of these elements is vast, but it is not clear just how integral they are to the success of services for Indigenous women with breast cancer.”

5. Farah Nasir, B., Brennan-Olsen, S., Gill, N. S., Beccaria, G., Kisely, S., Hides, L., Kondalsamy-Chennakesavan, S., Nicholson, G., & Toombs, M. (2021 – 7/06/2021). A community-led design for an Indigenous Model of Mental Health Care for Indigenous people with depressive disorders. Australian and New Zealand Journal of Public Health, 45(4), 330-337. #openaccess at

“Interpretative phenomenology provides both a methodology and a culturally safe and thus appropriate philosophy to investigate mental health issues in Indigenous communities, particularly given the subjective realities and interpretations of participants.”

3. *Kerrigan, V., McGrath, S. Y., Majoni, S. W., Walker, M., Ahmat, M., Lee, B., Cass, A., Hefler, M., & Ralph, A. P. (2021 – 4/6/2021). From “stuck” to satisfied: Aboriginal people’s experience of culturally safe care with interpreters in a Northern Territory hospital. BMC Health Serv Res, 21(1), 548. #openaccess at

‘This research is the first to demonstrate the importance of consistent interpreter use for providing culturally safe care for Aboriginal patients in Australia.’

4. Fredericks, B., & Bradfield, A. (2021 – 7/6/2021). Affirming Aboriginal identities: art production in central Queensland. Journal of Visual Art Practice, 1-17. #lockedupknowledge for USD$45.00 at

‘CAM’s artists are conscious of the need to create an environment where knowledge can be shared and encountered in culturally safe and supportive ways – that is, an environment that values yarning.’

8. Wilson-Matenga, G., Campbell, M., Katterl, R., Ellis, E., & Skeen, R. (2021 – 28/06/2021). Partnership, trust and respect: NSW’s response to COVID-19 among Aboriginal people. Australian and New Zealand Journal of Public Health, 45(4), 315-317. #openaccess at

“Support local partnership for improved community access to testing, integrated supports for cases and contacts and culturally safe contact tracing”

6. Thomas, S., Bolsewicz, K., Leask, J., Clark, K., Ennis, S., & Durrheim, D. (2021 – 8/06/2021). Structural and Social Inequities Contribute to Pockets of Low Childhood Immunisation in New South Wales, Australia. Research Square. #openaccess at

‘They spoke of a lack of cultural safety when accessing mainstream health services, feeling unwelcome, being misunderstood and discriminated against. There are few Aboriginal Health Practitioners and Aboriginal Registered Nurses who are authorised to immunise children, which contributed to the reported lack of cultural safety.’

7. Rheault, H., F. Coyer and A. Bonner (2021) Chronic disease health literacy in First Nations people: A mixed methods study’, Journal of Clinical Nursing 30(17-18): 2683-95. #lockedupknowledge for AUD$49.00 at

“An Aboriginal Health Worker (male) employed by Mount Isa Hospital was engaged as the Cultural Advisor for this study to ensure and embed cultural safety and act as a cultural broker between the research team and the community.”

9. Canuto, K., & Finlay, S. M. (2021, 2021/08/01). I am not here for your convenience. Australian and New Zealand Journal of Public Health, 45(4), 305-306. #openaccess at

“They [documents that do not follow style guides for preferred terminology] do not demonstrate a level of cultural safety and respect required to work with Aboriginal and Torres Strait Islander people.”

– ende –

July 2021

1. Topp, S. M., Tully, J., Cummins, R., Graham, V., Yashadhana, A., Elliott, L., & Taylor, S. (2021 – 2/07/2021). Unique knowledge, unique skills, unique role: Aboriginal and Torres Strait Islander Health Workers in Queensland, Australia. BMJ Global Health, 6(7), e006028.

‘It means A&TSIHWs [Aboriginal and Torres Strait Islander Health Workers], alongside their hospital counterparts Indigenous Hospital Liaison Officers, are the only front- line professionals in the state health workforce whose job includes responsibility for advocating culturally safe care at the whole- of- service level, and not simply as part of their individual work practice.’

4. Tujague, N. A., & Ryan, K. L. (2021, 9/07/2021). Ticking the box of ‘cultural safety’ is not enough: why trauma-informed practice is critical to Indigenous healing. Rural Remote Health, 21(3), 6411. #openaccess at

‘It is critical that those working with Aboriginal and Torres Strait Islander communities acknowledge and understand the impacts of trauma in order to engage in culturally safe practice.’

8. *Kong, A., Dickson, M., Ramjan, L., Sousa, M. S., Goulding, J., Chao, J., & George, A. (2021 – 29/07/2021). A Qualitative Study Exploring the Experiences and Perspectives of Australian Aboriginal Women on Oral Health during Pregnancy. Int J Environ Res Public Health, 18(15). #openaccess at

“Based on the findings from this study, a potential culturally safe model of oral healthcare would involve the delivery of oral health and pregnancy advice by an antenatal care provider that the client trusts, such as an AHW, alongside culturally appropriate oral health promotion resources.”

2. Eadie, K., Douch, M., & Zahir, S. F. (2021, 5/07/2021). Outcomes for Indigenous Children in Care Presenting at a Specialist Child and Youth Mental Health Service. Australian Social Work, 1-14.

‘In addition, the role [of Indigenous Program Coordinator] contributes to assessment, case planning, management, and review processes to ensure comprehensive culturally appropriate and culturally safe service delivery.’

5. Maddox, R., G. Blais, A. Mashford-Pringle, R. Monchalin, M. Firestone, C. Ziegler, M.M. Ninomiya and J. Smylie (2021 – 13/07/2021) ‘Reviewing Health Service and Program Evaluations in Indigenous Contexts: A Systematic Review’, American Journal of Evaluation 42(3): 332-53. #lockedupknowledge for £29.00 at

“However, cultural competence models, such as the AEA Statement on Cultural Competence in Evaluation, often fail to recognize how Euro-Western evaluation and power structures are constructed in a colonial context and are not culturally safe in Indigenous contexts. Evaluators need to be engaged in working toward cultural safety and critical consciousness.”

7. McCalman, J., Longbottom, M., Fagan, S., Fagan, R., Andrews, S., & Miller, A. (2021 – 23/07/2021). Leading with local solutions to keep Yarrabah safe: a grounded theory study of an Aboriginal community-controlled health organisation’s response to COVID-19. BMC Health Serv Res, 21(1), 732. #openaccess at

“The success of the locally led, holistic, comprehensive and culturally safe response of Gurriny suggests that such tailored place-based approaches to pandemics (and other health issues) are appropriate, but require dedicated resourcing.”

3. Blignault, I., Norsa, L., Blackburn, R., Bloomfield, G., Beetson, K., Jalaludin, B., & Jones, N. (2021, 6/07/2021). “You Can’t Work with My People If You Don’t Know How to”: Enhancing Transfer of Care from Hospital to Primary Care for Aboriginal Australians with Chronic Disease. Int J Environ Res Public Health, 18(14).

‘Building rapport with Aboriginal people who have not been well-served by government health services in the past, and gaining their trust, takes time and effort. Lack of cultural safety and misunderstanding of the concept of “equity” as opposed to “equality”, with staff seeing more value in treating everyone the same rather than “respecting the difference”, is a major challenge.’

6. Kerrigan, V., McGrath, S. Y., Majoni, S. W., Walker, M., Ahmat, M., Lee, B., Cass, A., Hefler, M., & Ralph, A. P. (2021, 23/07/2021). “The talking bit of medicine, that’s the most important bit”: doctors and Aboriginal interpreters collaborate to transform culturally competent hospital care. International Journal for Equity in Health, 20(1), 170.

‘To deliver culturally safe care, healthcare providers and the institutions in which they work, also need to be culturally competent.’


August 2021

1. *Molloy, L., Beckett, P., Chidarikire, S., Scott, M. P., Guha, M. D., Tran Merrick, T., & Patton, D. (2021, 2/08/2021). ‘First tonight, the contentious new code telling nurses to say, ‘sorry for being white’: Mental health nurses’ beliefs about their Code of Conduct and cultural safety for Aboriginal and Torres Strait Islander Peoples. Int J Ment Health Nurs, n/a(n/a). #lockedupknowledge for USD$49 at

Mark’s stuff

Lock, M.J. (Ngiyampaa), A.L. Stephenson, J. Branford, J. Roche, M.S. Edwards and K. Ryan (2017) ‘Voice of the Clinician: the case of an Australian health system‘, Journal of Health Organization and Management 31(6): 665-78.

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An Aboriginal Cultural Safety and Security Framework

Voice of the Clinician Project

Lock, M.J., Walker, T. and Browne, J. (2021), Promoting cultural rigour through critical appraisal tools in First Nations peoples’ research. Australian and New Zealand Journal of Public Health, 45: 210-211.

‘We propose an initial definition of cultural rigour as the detailed attention to protocols of engaging with First Nations peoples in all research processes to ensure the cultural validity of the results. As a result, First Nations peoples’ diverse cultural knowledge is epitomised in research design, governance, and evidence-based recommendations.’

Browne, J., Gilmore, M., Lock, M., & Backholer, K. (2020). First Nations Peoples’ Participation in the Development of Population-Wide Food and Nutrition Policy in Australia: A Political Economy and Cultural Safety Analysis. International Journal of Health Policy and Management.

Australian Open Disclosure Governance: Closed to Cultural Voice

Lock, M., Burmeister, O., McMillan, F., & Whiteford, G. (2020, Feb). Absence of rigorous evidence undermines cultural safety reforms. Aust J Rural Health, 28(1), 4-5.

Flemington, T., Lock, M., Shipp, J., Hartz, D., Lonne, B., & Fraser, J. A. (2021, 2021/01/26). Cultural Safety and Child Protection Responses in Hospitals: A Scoping Review. International Journal on Child Maltreatment: Research, Policy and Practice.

An Aboriginal Cultural Safety and Security Framework

Browne, J., Lock, M., Walker, T., Egan, M., & Backholer, K. (2020). Effects of food policy actions on Indigenous Peoples’ nutrition-related outcomes: a systematic review. BMJ Global Health, 5(8), e002442.

Lock, M. J. (2019). The Proposed AHPRA Definition of Cultural Safety – A Significant Moment for Empowering Cultural Voice.